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Danayo is an w:international auxiliary language[1], intended to be quickly learnable, readily comprehensible, and mutually communicative between persons of the w:East Asian cultural sphere. It uses w:Chinese characters for all of its native writing, with some forms being simplified according to w:Shinjitai, the kanji standard of Japan. w:Hangul -- the alphabet of Korea -- is used for foreign sounds or phonetic spelling. It does not have tones, is mostly isolating, SVO, topic-prominent, uses classifiers, is pro-drop, and uses postpositions. It is meant to be spoken throughout w:East Asia: in w:China, w:Japan, w:Korea, w:Vietnam, and even w:Mongolia.

Phonology 编辑

Danayo has 5 vowels and 12 consonants. Immediately upon seeking a common ground across East Asia, one encounters a great deal of diversity. Japanese is definitely the outlier, with the most restrictive sound inventory of all. Only Japanese does not contrast aspirated and unaspirated stops[2], instead opting for the more European-sounding voicing contrast[3]. Aspiration-contrast is difficult for Japanese-speakers to learn[4]. The operating principle for our sound selection is, no other sounds than Japanese has, but including Japanese allophones.


Consonants
"Lips" "Teeth" "Top" "Back"
"Nose" m /m/ n /n/ ŋ /ŋ~ɴ/
"Pop" "weak" b /b~p/ d /d~t/ j /dʑ~tɕ/† g /g~k/‡
"strong" p /pʰ/ t /tʰ/ c /t͡ɕʰ~cʰ/ k /kʰ/
"Hiss" s /s⁽ʰ⁾ ~ ɕ⁽ʰ⁾/ h /h ~ x/
"Enter" w /w/ l /l~ɾ/ y /j/
j may be pronounced /z/
g may be pronounced /ɣ/

w:Vowels are also difficult to achieve consensus on. Mandarin and Japanese have the most limited systems[5]. The world's most common and usable system -- with five, cardinal vowels -- was chosen for maximum compatibility, and some combinations are excluded (see below). Again, much allophony will occur and much tolerance will be needed between parties. There are two ways to write /u/, but only one (우) is used in native transcription. The other (으) is used in transliteration, to break up consonant clusters. It is whatever epenthetic vowel is common for the speaker. Japanese will realize these as /ɯᵝ/, Koreans as /ɯ/, Mandarin-speakers as /ɨ/, Cantonese as /ʊ̈/, and Vietnamese as /ə̆/.

Vowels
Front Central Back
High i /i ~ ɪ/ _* /ɯᵝ~ɯ~ɨ~ʊ̈~ə̆/ u /u ~ ʊ/
Mid e /e ~ ɛ / o /o ~ ɔ/
Low a /a ~ ä ~ ɑ/
* The central vowel is nearly completely unspecified an only used in transcribing foreign sounds.

Because tone is not present in all languages[6] and learning tone is extremely prohibitive, tone is not phonemic in Danayo, and prosody is not specified. Sentence Final Particles (SFPs) are mandatory to indicate any modality other than simple, declarative sentences.

Phonotactics 编辑

Initial + On-Glide + Vowel + Final
m, n
p, t, k
s, h
l, ø
+ y, w
ø
+ i, u
e, o
a
+ m, n, ŋ
p, t, k
y, w, ø

Across the region, there is no clear majority position on syllable structure. WALS misleadingly labels all our languages as "moderately complex"[7]. Japanese is not even organized around the syllable, but the mora. Because the common core across the region is the Chinese character, that is the basic organizing principle, not the syllable. That being said, there are some simple principles in the phonetic system. A syllable may start with any sounds except /ŋ/ (Japanese /ɴ/)[8]. It is possible for many of the region to pronounce each hanji as one syllable, but that is not required. At maximum efficiency, as syllable would have one of ten onsets (include null), one of three on-glides (including null), one of the five cardinal vowels, and one of nine finals (including off-glides and null). Hence, someone with the most trouble, speaking one of the most complicated hanji sounds, could end up saying as many as three syllables, which could be transliterated with as many as four Japanese kana. Part of learning this language is learning how other Asians pronounce things and learning tolerance.

Writing 编辑

Danayo recognizes that while Chinese characters may be common in Japan and China, they are less so in Korea and absent from Vietnamese popular education. Therefore, the total number of logograms in use is kept to under 2000, indeed as close to the Korean list of 1800 learned in school as possible. Pronunciations are regularly derived from Middle Chinese, and then adapted to a consensus position between Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese, but also altered to reduce homophony.

The form of Chinese characters have changed in the last century, with the development of Simplified Characters in Mainland China. However, these are not taught in Korea and elsewhere. Therefore, a medial position has been chosen, that of Shinjitai.

Because Chinese characters do not contain enough phonetic information, and because transcribing sounds is also needed, a phonetic alphabet is also needed. Katakana is useful, but is not helpful in spelling foreign words, and not compact. The Latin alphabet is not indigenous enough. Hangul was chosen because it required the least modification. Whenever possible, in order to facilitate learning by newcomers, Hangul should be written as Ruby, like this: Template:SRuby. Only words which are not Danayo should be written as Hangul alone: 도오쿄 (Japanese). Transliteration of foreign sounds is bound by Danayo phonotactics, not Korean.

The Danayo system of Hangul is slightly different from standard Korean. Some syllables may be written with one of two diacritical marks. Syllables may end in non-Korean off-glides, which have to be written as as   ̩ (\0329) or   ̞ (\031E). When these special characters are unavailable, the simple Korean vowels ㅣ (\3163), ㅜ (\315C) may follow the text. As a last resort, a Latin capital 'T' and a "pipe" may be used.

Derivation 编辑

Correspondences of initial consonants
Middle Chinese Sino-Vietnamese Sino-Korean Sino-Japanese Mandarin Cantonese Danayo
Go-on Kan-on Tōsō-on
Labials 幫 p p > b p/pʰ ɸ > h ɸ > h ɸ > h p/f p/f b
滂 pʰ pʰ/f pʰ/f p
並 b b b > b/ph/v pʰ/p/f pʰ/p/f b
明 m m > m/v m m b[9] m m/w m m
Dentals 端 t t > đ t/tʰ t t t t t d
透 tʰ tʰ > th t
定 d d > đ d tʰ/d tʰ/d d
泥 n n n n d[10] n n n~l n
來 l l l r r r l l l
Retroflex nasal 娘 ɳ n n~ø n d n n~l n
Retroflex stops 知 ʈ ʈ > tr tʰ/tɕ/tɕʰ t t s ts d
徹 ʈʰ ʂ > s tʂʰ tsʰ t
澄 ɖ ɖ > tr d tʂʰ, tʂ tsʰ, ts j
Dental sibilants 精 ts s > t s s ts, tɕ ts j
清 tsʰ ɕ > th tsʰ, tɕʰ tsʰ c
從 dz s > t z tsʰ, tɕʰ, ts, tɕ tsʰ, ts j
心 s s s s s s
邪 z z tsʰ, ts z, ʑ
俟 ʐ s z tʂʰ, s tsʰ, ts j
Retroflex sibilants 莊 tʂ ʈ > tr tɕ/tɕʰ s tʂ, ts ts s
初 tʂʰ ʂ > s tʂʰ, tsʰ tsʰ c
崇 dʐ z tʂʰ, tsʰ, tʂ, ʂ tsʰ, ts, s j
生 ʂ s s ʂ, s s s
Palatals 章 tɕ c > ch tɕ/tɕʰ ts j
昌 tɕʰ tʃ > x tʂʰ tsʰ c
禪 dʑ ɕ > th s z tʂʰ, ʂ tsʰ, ts, s s
書 ɕ s ʂ s s
船 ʑ z s tʂʰ, ʂ
日 ny ɲ > nh z > ∅ n z z ɻ, ʔ j n
以 j d ø j j j, w~ʋ j, w y
Velars 見 k k > c/g k/h k k k k, tɕ k, kʷ g
溪 kʰ kʰ > kh kʰ, tɕʰ h, f, kʰ, kʰʷ k
群 g ɡ > c k g kʰ, tɕʰ, k, tɕ kʰ, kʰʷ, k, kʷ g
疑 ŋ ŋ > ng h g g ʔ~ɰ, j, w~ʋ, n ŋ, ʔ, j ø
Laryngeals 影 ʔ ʔ > y ʔ, j, w~ʋ ʔ, j, w
曉 h h h k k x, ɕ h, f, j h
匣 ɦ ɣ > g/w x, ɕ h, w
云 ɦj v, h ø j j j, w~ʋ j, w ø/y
Correspondences of final sounds
Middle Chinese Sino-Vietnamese Sino-Korean Sino-Japanese Mandarin Example Danayo
Name 1 2 3 1 2 3
刪二開 ɣansan sansanshān 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣan|limit=4}} an
刪二開入 ɣathiệt hilkatsuxiá 02 at
夬二開 ɣaiquái kwaeketsu kechi kaiguài 03 wai
肴二開 ɣauhào hyokouyáo 20 , , , yau
銜二開 ɣamhàm hamkan ganxián 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣam|limit=4}} am
銜二開入 ɣaphạp apkouxiá 03 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣap|limit=4}} ap
麻三開 iama mơ mama ba 19 , , , ya
麻二開 ɣama mơ mama ba 27 , , , a
庚二合 æŋcanh gyeongkougēng 02 , waŋ
庚二合入 ækmạch méc maekhaku baku 00 wak
庚二開 ɣæŋcanh gyeongkougēng 15 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣæŋ|limit=4}} aŋ
庚二開入 ɣækmạch méc maekhaku baku 12 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣæk|limit=4}} ak
凡三合 ɨɐmphàm beombon hanfán 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨɐm|limit=4}} am
凡三合入 ɨɐp ạp aấp ặp ập ốp úp ụppipbou 03 , , ap
陽三合 ʉɐŋdương dàng giang yangyouyáng 20 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ʉɐŋ|limit=4}} waŋ
陽三合入 ʉɐkdược ước yakyakuyào 00 wak
陽三開 ɨɐŋdương dàng giang yangyouyáng 65 , , , yaŋ
陽三開入 ɨɐkdược ước yakyakuyào 12 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨɐk|limit=4}} yak
元三合 ʉɐnnguyên wongen ganyuán 26 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ʉɐn|limit=4}} on
元三合入 ʉɐtnguyệt wolgetsu gatsuyuè 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ʉɐt|limit=4}} wet
元三開 ɨɐnnguyên wongen ganyuán 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨɐn|limit=4}} en
元三開入 ɨɐtnguyệt wolgetsu gatsuyuè 01 et
嚴三開 ɨɐmnghiêm ngàm eomgen gonyán 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨɐm|limit=4}} yem
嚴三開入 ɨɐpnghiệp eopgyou gou 03 , , yep
廢三合 ʉɐiphế pyehaifèi 02 , ye
廢三開 ɨɐiphế pyehaifèi 01 ye
唐一合 wɑŋđường đằng đàng giềng dangtoutáng 08 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::wɑŋ|limit=4}} waŋ
唐一合入 wɑkđạc đác taktakuduó 05 , , , wak
唐一開 ɑŋđường đằng đàng giềng dangtoutáng 29 , , , aŋ
唐一開入 ɑkđạc đác taktakuduó 21 , , , ak
寒一開 ɑnhàn hankanhán 28 , , , an
寒一開入 ɑthạt hột galkatsu 06 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɑt|limit=4}} at
戈一合 uɑqua quơ quờ gwaka 31 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::uɑ|limit=4}} wa
戈三開 ɨɑqua quơ quờ gwaka 00 ya
桓一合 uɑnhoàn hwankan ganhuán 37 , , , wan
桓一合入 uɑtmạt mất mặt mết mệt mượt malmatsu batsu 10 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::uɑt|limit=4}} wat
歌一開 ɑca cà gaka 21 , , , a
泰一合 uɑithái taetaitài 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::uɑi|limit=4}} wei
泰一開 ɑithái taetaitài 10 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɑi|limit=4}} ai
談一開 ɑmđàm giạm damdan tantán 10 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɑm|limit=4}} am
談一開入 ɑphạp khạp hapkou gou 03 , , ap
豪一開 ɑuhào hogou kouháo 51 , , , au
蕭四開 eutiêu soshouxiāo 14 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::eu|limit=4}} yau
先四合 wentiên ten teng seonsenxiān 04 , , , wen
先四合入 wettiết seolsetsuxiè 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::wet|limit=4}} wet
先四開 entiên ten teng seonsenxiān 32 , , , en
先四開入 ettiết seolsetsuxiè 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::et|limit=4}} et
添四開 emthêm thiêm thếch cheomtentiān 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::em|limit=4}} em
添四開入 epđiếm cheopchou ten sentiē 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ep|limit=4}} ep
青四合 weŋthanh thênh xanh cheongsei shouqīng 00 iŋ
青四合入 wekthiếc tích xích seokseki shaku shi 00 wek
青四開 eŋthanh thênh xanh cheongsei shouqīng 29 , , , eŋ
青四開入 ekthiếc tích xích seokseki shaku shi 17 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ek|limit=4}} yek
齊四合 weitày tề tè chai jesei zai sai 02 , wei
齊四開 eitày tề tè chai jesei zai sai 44 , , , ei
仙A三開 intiên seonsenxiān 22 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iᴇn|limit=4}} yen
仙A三開入 it seolsetsu sechixuē 08 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iᴇt|limit=4}} yet
宵A三開 iutiêu soshouxiāo 28 , , , eu
支A三開 ichi chề xê chia giê xài jishizhī 23 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iᴇ|limit=4}} e
清三開 iŋthanh thảnh thênh thinh cheongsei shouqīng 29 , , , iŋ
清三開入 iktích tếch thách tách seokseki shaku 27 , , , ek
祭A三開 iitế jesai 12 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iᴇi|limit=4}} e
鹽A三開 imdiêm yeomenyán 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iᴇm|limit=4}} yem
鹽A三開入 ipdiệp diếp dợp dớp đẹp yeob seobyou shou 04 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iᴇp|limit=4}} yep
痕一開 ənngấn ngằn ngẩn ngân ngần heunkonhén 06 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ən|limit=4}} an
侯一開 əuhậu hầu hukouhóu 28 , , , ou
痕一開入 əthột heulkotsu gochi 00 ot
登一合 wəŋđăng đắng deungtou todēng 00 oŋ
登一合入 wəkđức deoktoku 02 , ok
登一開 əŋđăng đắng deungtou todēng 15 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::əŋ|limit=4}} uŋ
魂一合 uənhồn hun hùn honkon gonhún 21 , , , on
魂一合入 uətmột mốt molbotsu bai baméi 10 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::uət|limit=4}} ot
登一開入 əkđức deoktoku 11 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ək|limit=4}} uk
佳二開 ɣɛgiai trai dai lai gakajiā 10 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣɛ|limit=4}} y/wai
咸二開 ɣɛmhàm hamkan genxián 04 , , , am
咸二開入 ɣɛphiệp heupkouqià 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣɛp|limit=4}} ap
山二開 ɣɛnsơn san sansan senshān 11 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣɛn|limit=4}} an
山二開入 ɣɛthạt halkatsuxiá 05 , , , at
皆二開 ɣɛigiai gaekaijiē 17 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣɛi|limit=4}} ye
耕二合 ɛŋcanh gyeongkougēng 00 waŋ
耕二合入 ɛkmạch maekbakumài 01 wak
耕二開 ɣɛŋcanh gyeongkougēng 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣɛŋ|limit=4}} aŋ
耕二開入 ɣɛkmạch maekbakumài 11 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣɛk|limit=4}} ak
微三合 ʉivi mibiwēi 20 , , , wi
微三開 ɨivi mibiwēi 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨi|limit=4}} ii
庚三合入 kmạch méc maekhaku baku 00 wek
庚三開 ɣŋcanh gyeongkougēng 25 , , , yeŋ
庚三開入 ɣkmạch méc maekhaku baku 03 , , ek
庚三合 ŋcanh gyeongkougēng 06 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::wɣiæŋ|limit=4}} yoŋ
宵B三開 ɣiᴇutiêu soshouxiāo 10 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiᴇu|limit=4}} yau
仙B三開 ɣiᴇntiên seonsenxiān 06 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiᴇn|limit=4}} yen
仙B三開入 ɣiᴇt seolsetsu sechixuē 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiᴇt|limit=4}} et
清三合 wiᴇŋthanh thảnh thênh thinh cheongsei shouqīng 03 , , eŋ
清三合入 wiᴇktích tếch thách tách seokseki shaku 02 , ek
祭B三開 ɣiᴇitế jesai 03 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiᴇi|limit=4}} e
鹽B三開 ɣiᴇmdiêm yeomenyán 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiᴇm|limit=4}} em
鹽B三開入 ɣiᴇpdiệp diếp dợp dớp đẹp yeob seobyou shou 00 ep
支B三開 ɣiᴇchi chề xê chia giê xài jishizhī 19 , , , wi
侵B三開 ɣmxâm xăm xơm chimshinqīn 14 , , , im
侵B三開入 ɣptập jipshuu 08 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiɪp|limit=4}} ip
眞B三開 ɣnchân jinshinzhēn 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiɪn|limit=4}} in
眞B三開入 ɣtchất chát chắc chặt chắt chớt jilshitsu shichizhì 04 , , , it
脂B三開 ɣchi chỉ jishizhī 20 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiɪ|limit=4}} ii
仙B三合 ɣiuᴇntiên seonsenxiān 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiuᴇn|limit=4}} wen
仙B三合入 ɣiuᴇt seolsetsu sechixuē 00 wet
祭B三合 ɣiuᴇitế jesai 01 e
支B三合 ɣiuᴇchi chề xê chia giê xài jishizhī 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiuᴇ|limit=4}} wii
眞B三合 ɣiuɪnchân jinshinzhēn 01 yun
眞B三合入 ɣiuɪtchất chát chắc chặt chắt chớt jilshitsu shichizhì 00 ut
脂B三合 ɣiuɪchi chỉ jishizhī 06 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣiuɪ|limit=4}} wai
侵A三開 iɪmxâm xăm xơm chimshinqīn 16 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iɪm|limit=4}} im
侵A三開入 iɪptập jipshuu 12 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iɪp|limit=4}} ip
眞A三開 iɪnchân jinshinzhēn 38 , , , in
眞A三開入 iɪtchất chát chắc chặt chắt chớt jilshitsu shichizhì 19 , , , it
脂A三開 iɪchi chỉ jishizhī 30 , , , ii
臻三開 ɪntrăn jinshinzhēn 00 in
臻三開入 ɪt jeulshitsuzhì 01 it
幽三開 iɪuu ù yuyuuyōu 03 , , yuu
之三開 ɨchi giây gì jishizhī 75 , , , i
欣三開 ɨnhân hơn hoen hớn heungon kin konxīn 06 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨn|limit=4}} in
欣三開入 ɨthất hắt khật ngật heulkitsu 01 it
蒸三合入 wɨk giấc xắc chếch xức yeokikizhí 01 wik
蒸三開 ɨŋchưng chừng jeungjouzhēng 18 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨŋ|limit=4}} iŋ
蒸三開入 ɨkchức chắc giấc xắc chếch xức jikshoku toku shikizhí 25 , , , ik
冬一開 uoŋđông đong dongtoudōng 04 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::uoŋ|limit=4}} oŋ
冬一開入 uokóc ốc okyoku oku 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::uok|limit=4}} ok
模一開 uomô mo mọ mu mua mạc mùmomo bo 70 , , , o
鍾三開 ɨoŋchung chuông jongshouzhōng 35 , , , yoŋ
鍾三開入 ɨokđuốc chúc chokshoku sokuzhú 17 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨok|limit=4}} yok
虞三合 ɨo ugu 65 , , , u
東一開 uŋđông đang dongtoudōng 30 , , , oŋ
東一開入 ukốc ọc okoku 11 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::uk|limit=4}} ok
文三合 ɨunvăn von munbun monwén 23 , , , un
尤三開 ɨuvưu uyuuyóu 81 , , , y*u*u
文三合入 ɨutvật mulmotsu butsu 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɨut|limit=4}} ut
東三開 ɨuŋđông đang dongtoudōng 21 , , , uŋ
東三開入 ɨukốc ọc okoku 25 , , , uk
刪二合 ɣuansan sansanshān 08 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣuan|limit=4}} wan
刪二合入 ɣuathiệt hilkatsuxiá 01 wat
夬二合 ɣuaiquái kwaeketsu kechi kaiguài 03 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣuai|limit=4}} wai
麻二合 ɣuama mơ mama ba 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣua|limit=4}} wa
戈三合 ɨqua quơ quờ gwaka 01 wa
仙A三合 iuᴇntiên seonsenxiān 17 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iuᴇn|limit=4}} wen
仙A三合入 iuᴇt seolsetsu sechixuē 07 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iuᴇt|limit=4}} wet
祭A三合 iuᴇitế jesai 03 , , e
支A三合 iuᴇchi chề xê chia giê xài jishizhī 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iuᴇ|limit=4}} yui
佳二合 ɣgiai trai dai lai gakajiā 02 , wa
山二合 ɣnsơn san sansan senshān 01 wan
山二合入 ɣthạt halkatsuxiá 00 wat
皆二合 ɣigiai gaekaijiē 03 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣuɛi|limit=4}} wai
脂A三合 ichi chỉ jishizhī 13 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iuɪ|limit=4}} yui
諄三合 intruân sunjun shunzhūn 20 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iuɪn|limit=4}} yun
諄三合入 itthuật suljutsushù 05 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::iuɪt|limit=4}} ut
咍一開 ʌihay thay haekai taihāi 40 , , , ai
江二開 ɣʌŋgiang giăng nhăng gianh gangkoujiāng 09 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ɣʌŋ|limit=4}} aŋ
江二開入 ɣʌkgiác gakkaku koujué 12 {{#ask:[[中古漢語韻母::ɣʌ�k]]|limit=4}} yak
覃一開 ʌmđàm damtan entán 18 , , , am
覃一開入 ʌphợp cáp cóp góp gộp họp hạphapgou katsu gatsu 06 {{#ask:中古漢語韻母::ʌp|limit=4}} ap
灰一合 uʌihôi hoi khôi vôi hui hoekaihuī 26 , , , oi
魚三開 ɨʌngư ngơ ngớ ngừ eogyo 50 , , , yo

Syntax 编辑

(NounPhraseTOPIC + <()>)? (NounPhraseSUBJ.)? PostpositionalPhrase* VerbPhrase (NounPhraseOBJ.)? SentenceFinalParticle*

Danayo is has a subject-verb-object (SVO) word order. The languages of Asian are split SVO/SOV[11] but because SOV requires making the nominative and accusative, SVO was chosen. Adverbial phrases and oblique arguments must precede the verb[12]. The language uses postpositions, genitives precede their noun, as do adjectives, numerals, and relative clauses. Danayo is a topic-prominent language, featuring pro-drop, wh-word in situ, and copula-drop.

Nouns 编辑

<()><(헤̩)> 飛行機<(뷔항기̩)> <()> 汽油<(기유)>

Regarding elephants, airplanes use gasoline.

Unlike English, most of the languages of Asia are verb-centric. This can be discerned by the fact that adjectives are stative verbs, not substantive nouns. In all the languages of our region, nouns are not marked for number, gender, or case.

Word order determines a great deal of meaning. Topics must come first in the sentence and be marked with the postposition <(헤̩)>. The subject may be dropped. Postpositional phrases must come before the verb. Objects must come after the verb. Topics serve a variety of grammatical roles, but one of the most important is possession, which is indicated by POSSESSOR-topic POSSESSEE exist.

The Noun Phrase 编辑

(Determiner - [ <()> or <()> or <()> ])? AdjectivalPhrase* Noun (Honorific Suffix - <(헤̩)>)? ClassifierPhrase

The noun phrase consists of an optional determiner (<()>, <()>, or <()>), any adjectival phrases, the noun itself, an optional honorific suffix (<(헤̩)>), an optional plural suffix (simple or associative), and an optional classifier phrase.

Pronouns 编辑

The most polite thing to do is drop the pronoun. This is humble if you are speak about yourself, and it is middle-ground for speaking to another. To be polite, use the person's title. Using their name or "you" is much more intimate.

Template:SRuby
Proximal
Template:SRuby
Mesial
Template:SRuby
Distal
Template:SRuby
Interrogative[13]
Template:SRuby
Negative
Template:SRuby
Cyclic
Template:SRuby
Existential
Template:SRuby
Universal
Template:SRuby
Act
此事<(체지)>
this act
其事
that act
彼事
yon act
何事
which act
無事
no act
Template:Some 某事
some act
皆事<(계지)>
every act
Template:SRuby
Object
此物
this object
其物
that object
彼物
yon object
何物
which thing
無物
nothing
Template:Some 某物
something
皆物
everything
Template:SRuby
Person
此人
this person
其人
that person
彼人
yon person
Template:Yes 無人
nobody
Template:Some 某人
somebody
皆人
everyone
Template:SRuby
Place
此処<(치쵸)>
here
其処<(기쵸)>
there
彼処<(비쵸)>
yonder
何処<(하쵸)>
where
無処
nowhere
Template:Some 某処
somewhere
皆処
everywhere
Template:SRuby
Time
此時
now
其時
then
彼時
another time
Template:SRuby
when
無時
never
Template:Some 某時
sometime
皆時
all times
Template:SRuby
Manner
Template:Some Template:Some Template:Some Template:Some Template:Some Template:Some Template:Some
Template:SRuby Quantity 此多
this many
其多
that many
彼多
that many
何多
how many
無多
no amount
某多
some amount
Template:SRuby
Kind
此類
this kind
其類
that kind
彼類
that other kind
何類
what kind
無類
no kind
Template:Some 某類
some kind
皆類
every kind
Template:SRuby
Reason
此因<(체류̩)>
this reason
其因<(기류̩)>
that reason
彼因
that reason
何因()
why
無因
no reason
某因
some reason
皆因
every reason

Verbs 编辑

Verb phrases consist of an optional negative particle <(붇̲)>, any number of simple verbs for serialization, the one (or only) head verb, with optional honorific marker (<()>), and aspect marker (ø for imperfective, Template:SRuby for perfective, <()> for historic past, or <(?)> for irrealis).

Sentence Final Particles 编辑

Every utterance other than simple, declarative sentences must end in a sentence final particle.

References 编辑

  1. http://conlangery.com/2013/01/14/conlangery-80-zonal-auxlangs/
  2. http://wals.info/feature/4A#4/28.77/115.93
  3. http://wals.info/feature/5A#4/25.40/121.38
  4. http://www.conforg.fr/acoustics2008/cdrom/data/fa2005-budapest/paper/505-1.pdf
  5. http://wals.info/feature/2A#4/24.37/120.06
  6. http://wals.info/feature/13A#4/25.72/126.39
  7. http://wals.info/feature/12A#4/25.80/112.06
  8. http://wals.info/feature/9A#3/25.80/130.61
  9. Yields m- in syllables ending in original -ng.
  10. Yields n- in syllables ending in original -ng
  11. http://wals.info/feature/81A#4/27.29/130.08
  12. http://wals.info/feature/84A#4/25.80/126.04
  13. These words function in non-question sentences like English "-ever" words.

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